Labors, especially in industry, spend most of their time in the workplace. Several factors including physical activity and lifestyle of workers such as smoking habit in the workplace that will affect labors health. Besides that, bone mass is one of the factors that influence the health quality of workers, especially for hand-operated labor. This research aims to define the relationship between physical activity and smoking habit on bone mass in male industrial labors. The study is a preliminary study to recognize variables that influence bone mass and the base for defining the weight limit for lifting activities. This investigation was purposed determining physical activity and smoking habit of labors in the workplace, as well as calculating the bone mass of workers. The respondents required were 93 male labors in Padang, West Sumatra. Bone mass measuring tools were used to calculate labor's bone mass, while questionnaires were used to define the smoking habit of labors and physical activity. Physical activity, as well as smoking habit, were significantly affected the bone mass (p<0.05) of the workers. This study result explains that physical activity and smoking habit are factors that are associated with bone mass status for young male workers in Padang, West Sumatra.
Indonesia Jobs Outlook. Harnessing Technology For Growth And Job Creation ISBN: 978-92-2-030689-5. Jakarta: ILO. 2017.
Zadry HR, Dawal SZ. Future Research On Muscle And Mental Fatigue In Industry: A Mini Review. Proc 4th Kuala Lumpur Int Conf on Biomedical Engineering. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. 2008:794-797.
Zadry HR, Dawal SZ, Taha Z. Investigation Of Upper Limb Muscle Activity During Repetitive Light Task Using Surface Electromyography (SEMG). Conf Science and Technology for Humanity. Toronto: IEEE. 2009:230-233.
Taylor HL, Jacobs DR, Schucker B, et al. A Questionnaire For The Assessment Of Leisure Time Physical Activities. J Chronic Dis. 1978;3(12):741â€“755.
Paffenbarger Jr RS, Wing AL, Hyde RT. Physical Activity As An Index Of Heart Attack Risk In College Alumni. Am J Epidemiol. 1978;108(3):161â€“175.
Dimyati FK. Correlations Between Physical Activity, Smoking Habit And Attitude In Elderly With Incidence of Osteoporosis. J Epidemiology. 2017;5:1107-117.
Mardiyah S, Sartika ADR. Bone Density Disorders in Adults in Urban and Rural Areas. J National Public Health. 2014;8:6.
Alghadir H, Ahmad H, Gabr Sami A, et al. Physical Activity And Lifestyle Effects On Bone Mineral Density Among Young Adults: Sociodemographic And Biochemical Analysis. J Phys. 2015;27(7):2261â€“2270.
Patrianingrum M, Oktaliansah E, Surahman E. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Lower Back Pain in the Anesthesiology Workplace of Dr Hasan Sadikin Bandung. J Perioperative Anesthesia. 2015;1:47-56.
Parrott S, Godfrey C, Raw M. Costs Of Employee Smoking In The Workplace In Scotland. J Tob Control. 2000;9:187-192.
Donelly, E. Methods for Assessing Bone Quality. Symp. Bone Quality from Bench to Bedside. J Clin Orthop Relat. 2010;469:2128-2138.
Sorensen G, Pechacek T. Occupational And Sex Differences In Smoking And Smoking Cessation. J Occup Med. 1986;28:360-364.
Brinjikji W, Luetmer PH, Comstock B, et al. Systematic Literature Review of Imaging Features of Spinal Degeneration in Asymptomatic Populations. J Neuroradiol. 2015;36(4):811â€“816.
Davies JH, Evans BAJ, Gregory JW. Bone Mass Acquisition In Healthy Children. J Arch Dis Child. 2005;90:373â€“378.
Ralston SH. Bone Mass Through The Lifespan In Womenâ€™s Health Medicine. J Elsevier. 2006;3(4):145â€“148.
Korkmaz N, TutoÄŸlu A, Korkmaz I, et al. The Relationships Among Vitamin D Level, Balance, Muscle Mass, And Quality Of Life In Postmenopausal Patients With Osteoporosis. J Phys Ther Sci. 2014;26:1521â€“1526.
Melton LJ 3rd. Epidemiology Worldwide. J Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2003;32:1â€“13.
Bonura F. Prevention, Screening, And Management Of Osteoporosis: An Overview Of The Current Strategies. J Postgrad Med. 2009;121:5â€“17.
Patarianto P. Service Quality Analysis of Customer Satisfaction at Pt.Bank Mandiri (Persero) Tbk. Sidoarjo Gedangan Branch. J. Maksipreneur. 2015;6(2):28-37.
Baecke JAH, Burema J, Frijters ER. A Short Questionnaire For The Measurement Of Habitual Physical Activity In Epidemiological Studies. J Clin Nutr. 1982;36:936-942.
Specker LB, Wey E, Howard M, et al. Rates Of Bone Loss In Young Adult Males. J Clin Rheumatol. 2010;5(2):215â€“228.
Emaus N, Berntsen GKR, Joakimsen RM, et al. Longitudinal Changes In Forearm Bone Mineral Density In Women And Men Aged 25â€“44 Years. J Epidemiol. 2005;162:633â€“643.
Lauretani F, Bandinelli S, Griswold ME. Longitudinal Changes In BMD And Bone Geometry In A Population-Based Study. J Bone Miner Res. 2008;23:400â€“408.
Khosla S, Amin S, Orwoll E. Osteoporosis In Men. J Endocr. 2008;29:441â€“464.
Riggs BL, Melton JIII, Robb RA, et al. Population-Based Study Of Age And Sex Differences In Volumetric Bone Density, Size, Geometry, And Structure At Different Skeletal Sites. J Bone Miner Res. 2004;19:1945â€“1954.
Bakker I, Twisk JWR, Mechelen W, et al. Fat-Free Body Mass Is The Most Important Body Composition Determinant Of 10-Yr Longitudinal Development Of Lumbar Bone In Adult Men And Women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003;88:2607-2613.
Nordstrom P, Neovius M, Nordstrom A. Early And Rapid Bone Mineral Density Loss Of The Proximal Femur In Men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007;92:1902â€“1908.
Tervo T, Nordstrom P, Neovius M, et al. Constant Adaptation Of Bone To The Current Physical Activity Level In Men: A 12-Year Longitudinal Study. J Clin Endocrinol Metabol. 2008;93:4873â€“4879.
Gunter K, Baxter-Jones AD, Mirwald RL, et al. Jump Starting Skeletal Health: A 4-Year Longitudinal Study Assessing The Effects Of Jumping On Skeletal Development In Pre And Circum Pubertal Children. J Bone. 2008;42:710â€“718.
Wallace BA, Cumming RG. Systematic Review Of Randomized Trials Of The Effect Of Exercise On Bone Mass In Pre- And Postmenopausal Women. J Calcif Tissue Int. 2000;67:10â€“18.
Kim IG, So WY. The Relationship Between Household Income And Physical Activity In Korea. J Phys Ther Sci. 2014;26:1887â€“1889.
Bass S, Pearce G, Bradney M, et al. Exercise Before Puberty May Confer Residual Benefits In Bone Density In Adulthood: Studies In Active Prepubertal And Retired Female Gymnasts. J Bone Miner Res. 1998;13:500â€“507.
Muslimah E. Analysis of Constant Load (LC) in the Revised NIOSH Lifting Equation. Yogyakarta: Gadjah Mada University Press 2008.
Mutia, M. Measurement of Physiological and Psychological Workload on Tea Picking Operators and Green Tea Production Operators in Mitra Kerinci. J Optimizations of Systems at Industries. 2014:13(1):503-517.
Arimnas. Work Posture Analysis of Sack Lifting Activities at PT. Indofood CBP Sukses Makmur Tbk. Makassar Branch. J Optimizations of Systems at Industries. 2017;16(1):58-67.
NordstrÃ¶m A, Karlsson C, Nyquist F, et al. Bone Loss And Fracture Risk After Reduced Physical Activity. J Bone Miner Res. 2005;20:202â€“207.
Tanaka R, Ozawa J, Umehara T. Exercise Intervention To Improve The Bone Mineral Density And Bone Metabolic Markers As Risk Factors For Fracture In Japanese Subjects With Osteoporosis: A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis Of Randomized Controlled Trials. J Phys Ther Sci. 2012;24:1349â€“1353.
Daniell HW. Osteoporosis Of The Slender Smoker. Vertebral Compression Fractures And Loss Of Metacarpal Cortex About A Postmenopausal Cigarette. J Arch Intern Med. 1976;136(3):298-304.
Andersen FS, TransbÃ¸l I, Christiansen C. Is Cigarette Smoking A Promotor Of The Menopause?. J Acta Med Scand. 1982;212:137â€“139.
Sneve M, Emaus N, Joakimsen RM, et al. The Association Between Serum Parathyroid Hormone And Bone Mineral Density, And The Impact Of Smoking: The Tromso Study. J Endocrinol. 2008;158:401â€“409.
Hannan MT, Felson DT, Dawson-Hughes B, et al. Risk Factors For Longitudinal Bone Loss In Elderly: The Framingham Osteoporosis. Study. J Bone Miner Res. 2000;15: 710â€“720.
Ward KD, Klesges RC. A Meta-Analysis Of The Effects Of Cigarette Smoking On Bone Mineral Density. J Calcif Tissue Int. 2001;68:259â€“270.
Kapoor D, Jones TH. Smoking And Hormones In Health And Endocrine Disorders. J Endocrinol. 2005;152:491â€“499.
Lorentzon M, MellstrÃ¶m D, Haug E, et al. Smoking Is Associated With Lower Bone Mineral Density And Reduced Cortical Thickness In Young Men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007;92:497â€“503.
Shiri R, Karppinen J, Leino-Arjas P, et al. The Association Between Obesity and Low Back Pain: A Meta-Analysis. J AJE. 2009;171(2):135-151.
Vismara L, Menegoni F, Zaina F, et al. Effect Of Obesity And Low Back Pain On Spinal Mobility: A Cross-Sectional Study In Women. J NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation. 2010;73.
Purnamasari H, Gunarso U, Rujito L. Overweight as a Low Back Pain Risk Factor in Poly Nerve Patients at RSUD Prof. Dr. Margono. J Mandala of Health. 2010;4(1):26-32.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the Andalas Journal of Public Health right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under aÂ Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY-SA 4.0)Â that allows others toÂ shareÂ (copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format) andÂ adaptÂ (remix, transform, and build upon the material) the work for any purpose, even commercially with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in Andalas Journal of Public Health.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in Andalas Journal of Public Health.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).